Fires, drought linked to climate change affecting high-altitude forests

first_img Published: March 21, 2016 Large, severe fires in the West followed by increasing drought conditions as the planet warms are leading to lower tree densities and increased patchiness in high-elevation forests, according to a new study involving CU-Boulder.For the study, the team looked at nearly 200 subalpine forest plots that had undergone severe fires between 1994 and 2003 in and around Yellowstone National Park and Glacier National Park in Wyoming and Montana, said CU-Boulder postdoctoral researcher Brian Harvey. Subalpine forest regions in the West are the dense forests just downslope from the alpine tundra, said Harvey of CU-Boulder’s geography department who led the study while a graduate student at the University of Wisconsin-Madison.The researchers found that the rate of post-fire tree seedling establishment decreased substantially with greater post-fire drought severity. Seedling establishment also decreased when the seed sources were at greater distances from the edge of burn patches, he said.The team also found evidence that tree species from warmer and drier climates at lower elevations may colonize burned areas in subalpine forests as temperatures climb, but at rates lower than the decrease of current subalpine tree species, Harvey said.“This study is a crystal ball of sorts that helps us to see what forest recovery may look like in the future following severe fires,” he said. “These forests are well adapted to severe fires, but the net result of larger fires and warmer temperatures will likely be a decrease in tree density, a reduction in forest extent, and more forest patchiness in high-elevation areas.”A paper on the subject was published online in Global Ecology and Biogeography. Co-authors on the study include biologist Daniel Donato of the Washington State Department of Natural Resources in Olympia and Professor Monica Turner of the University of Wisconsin-Madison.The team measured tree species, numbers, sizes and ages of post-fire tree seedlings in the high-altitude forest plots. They also measured the distance between each plot – which were roughly 100 feet in diameter – to the nearest tree seed sources, as well as charting drought severity in the three years following severe fires.Each study plot was located in areas of severe wildfires that burned in 1994, 1999, 2000 and 2003, times of widespread fire across the Northern Rockies, said Harvey.“Over the next century, large fire years followed by droughts at least as severe as those seen in recent decades will likely become a more regular occurrence in the U.S. Northern Rockies,” the authors wrote in Global Ecology and Biogeography.Temperatures in the West have risen 2 to 3 degrees Fahrenheit in recent decades, which climate scientists attribute in large part to rising greenhouse gases in Earth’s atmosphere as a result of human activity.Seedlings of Engelmann spruce and subalpine fir, two common subalpine trees, decreased substantially in high elevations when coupled with fire and drought. But a third major subalpine species, lodgepole pine, was less affected, in part because of the abundant seeds stored in its cones that are released after fire events, said Harvey.High-elevation forests in the western U.S. also can host Douglas fir, quaking aspen, western larch and whitebark pine. Both Yellowstone and Glacier have large amounts of of federally protected land, much of it wilderness, that allows natural tree regeneration after fires and makes the subalpine zone a living lab of sorts for researchers, he said.“Data showing how forests may or may not recover following future fires in a warmer climate is extremely hard to get,” said Harvey. “Our approach was to look at recent fires that were followed by a range of climate conditions, with the warmer/dryer scenario the most likely window into what we might expect in the future.”“When we were collecting data for this study, we essentially were walking around on the front lines of climate change,” said Harvey. Categories:EnvironmentNews Headlinescenter_img Share Share via TwitterShare via FacebookShare via LinkedInShare via E-maillast_img read more

Another Gabby Douglas??? Simone Biles sets gynmastic records en route to Rio Olympics

first_imgPhotos: Instagram Gymnast Simone Biles Wins Four Titles On The Road To The OlympicsSuperstar gymnast Gabrielle “Gabby” Douglas captured the imagination of the international Olympic fan community four years ago in London when she became the first African American to ever earn the Gold medal in the all-around gymnastic competition — and the first to win more than one Gold medal in the same Olympic games. Her popularity soared so high that she was invited to Oprah Winfrey’s ostentatious mansion in Santa Barbara, Calif., for a TV special, and now she is the subject of a reality show on the same network, “Douglas Family Gold,” which chronicles her family as they prepare for this summer’s Olympics.But is there another black female ready to equal or surpass the historic feats of the ultra-talented Douglas?Simone Biles, who was just named the U.S. Female Olympic Athlete of the Year and is on her way to the Rio Olympics in Brazil, has just broken another record,  USA Today reports.Biles won her fourth consecutive title at the U.S. gymnastics championships Sunday night, and you can take your pick of superlatives to illustrate her domination. She’s the first woman in 40-plus years to win four titles. Her score of 62.100 was almost four points better than Raisman, a margin so ridiculously lopsided it makes those non-conference routs in college football look like squeakers.But what is most stunning is this wasn’t a bunch of junior-level wannabes Biles ran roughshod over. The Americans are the deepest team in the world, winners of the team title at the last four major international competitions and prohibitive favorites to run the streak to five at the Rio Olympics.Raisman, the runner-up, was a double gold medalist at the London Olympics. Further back was defending Olympic champion Gabby Douglas, who finished second to Biles at last year’s world championships. Also giving chase was Laurie Hernandez, last year’s junior champ who national team coordinator Martha Karolyi has high hopes for.It’s not as if there’s someone in another country who’s waiting in the wings, either. Romania’s Larisa Iordache, who has medaled at the last two world championships, isn’t even guaranteed of going to Rio after breaking her finger this spring. Former world champion Aliya Mustafina of Russia has struggled this year. China’s Shang Chunsong has never gotten within two points of Biles.last_img read more

Unai Emery doesn’t care about his bad record against Barcelona

first_img 10/08/2015 Rik Sharma “We want to play a lot of games against Barcelona in the future because it means we are at the top level. “An opportunity to enjoy ourselves against a great opponent who will be favourite to win but we will work hard to overcome them.  CEST Upd. at 21:46 center_img “In the past, sometimes I ended up happy and sometimes not so. I do not want to miss out on the opportunity of facing them either this year or in the next 15.” Unai Emery doesn’t care about his bad record against Barcelona, having never beaten them in 19 games.  The Sevilla coach faces the Catalans for the 20th time on Tuesday night in the European Super Cup and is relishing the challenge.  “It’s one more opportunity,” he explained. last_img read more

Morata will not be returning to Chelsea as Atletico Madrid prepare formal bid

first_imgAdvertisement ir3NBA Finals | Brooklyn Vs9idpjWingsuit rodeo📽Sindre E6xze( IG: @_aubreyfisher @imraino ) bsxz1Would you ever consider trying this?😱5253Can your students do this? 🌚a2neRoller skating! Powered by Firework Alvaro Morata signed for Chelsea in June 2017 and to be frank hasn’t been anything close to successful at Chelsea F.C. After being loaned out to Atletico, Morata has been better settled than at London and this could result in a permanent deals in a short time as Atletico Madrid are reportedly preparing for a formal bid to secure the 26 year old’s services.Advertisement Chelsea opted not to keep Gonzalo Higuain and cannot currently sign players because of their two-window transfer ban, which leaves them with Olivier Giroud, Michy Batshuayi and Tammy Abraham as their striking options.Advertisement Alvaro Morata wouldn’t be clamoured for in West London as he could never get settled there and his form always seemed to be off especially in the 2018-19 season. 16 goals in 47 games is all the Spanish International has managed so far and it is fair to say that, that hasn’t sufficed for the West London club.Chelsea had issued an ultimatum to Atletico that they would recall Morata back to Chelsea unless Atletico would pay up around the region of 50mil Euros. Chelsea source Matt Law is confident that a formal bid would come through soon and the relocation of Morata is just a matter of time.Advertisement Advertisementlast_img read more

Lionel Messi: 225 times MOTM since 2010/2011 (scrapes jaw off floor)

first_imgAdvertisement 2loy9dNBA Finals | Brooklyn Vs6nd2mWingsuit rodeo📽Sindre E4ztnf( IG: @_aubreyfisher @imraino ) 1kx2vWould you ever consider trying this?😱4Can your students do this? 🌚4hlynRoller skating! Powered by Firework Statistics of matches since the start of 2010/11 season show something stark and incredible : Lionel Messi has a massive 225 Man of the Match awards since. Nobody is even close as you can see in the list provided below.Advertisement Ronaldo as one would expect is second but he’s much closer to third placed Eden Hazard than Messi. Hazard has dazzled in the Premier League for Chelsea and it shows!Advertisement Here’s the top ten in full:1. Lionel Messi – 225Advertisement 2. Cristiano Ronaldo – 1253. Eden Hazard – 934. Zlatan Ibrahimovic – 895. Neymar – 655. Luis Suarez – 657. Gareth Bale – 628. Antoine Griezmann – 589. Arturo Vidal – 5310. Marco Reus – 50There are plenty of Real Madrid and Barcelona players in the list and understandably so.Despite topping the MOTM charts, Messi isn’t in pole position to bag the Ballon D’Or as Liverpool’s Virgil Van Dijk has outperformed Messi according to the bookies. Advertisementlast_img read more

Hayden lines up again

first_imgBy Mara Pattison-SowdenHUNDREDS of thousands of teenagers voted in the state and national elections this year, but not many of…[To read the rest of this story Subscribe or Login to the Gazette Access Pass] Thanks for reading the Pakenham Berwick Gazette. Subscribe or Login to read the rest of this content with the Gazette Digital Access Pass subscription.last_img

Calvin continues to be a Leaf killer as Hawks take 2-0 lead with 4-2 win

first_imgBy The Nelson Daily SportsThe performance on the ice was much better, but the result was the same for the Nelson Leafs.Dallas Calvin continues to be a Leaf killer, scoring the game-winning goal, his second of the game and seventh point of the series, late in the second period to lift the Beaver Valley Nitehawks to a 4-2 victory over the Nelson Leafs in Kootenay International Junior Hockey League playoff action Wednesday in Fruitvale.The Hawks now own a commanding 2-0 lead in the best-of-seven Murdoch Division playoff series with game three set for Friday at the NDCC Arena in Nelson.After being pounding by the Hawks 13-2 in the series opener Tuesday, the Leafs had some egg to remove from their faces — and did just that shelling Beaver Valley starter Mike Vlanich for 16 shots in the opening period.However, it was the Hawks scoring first and who else but Calvin doing the damage on the power play. With Leaf center Dallon Stoddart in the box for hooking, Calvin combined with Taylor Love and Tyler Collins to beat Marcus Beesley in the Leaf net.The trio of Love, Collins and Calvin have a whopping 18 points in two games.Unlike Tuesday, when the Leafs completely destructed, the Green and White rallied to tie the game before the period ended. Dustin Johnson of BCHL fame beat Vlanich.In the second Daniel Bishop regained the lead for Beaver Valley before Johnson, shorthanded tied the contest at 2-2.That set the stage for Calvin to net the winner with assists from Colton Donselaar and Nelson Minor Hockey product Ryon Sookro.Beaver Valley out shot Nelson 18-10 in the second period.Bishop, with his second of the game, iced the game by scoring into the empty net with 20 seconds remaining in the game.The Hawks held a slight 38-35 margin in shots.GAME NOTES: Nelson lost two key defenceman during the game. Both Tyler Parfeniuk and team captain Taylor O’Neil were ejected from the game for checking-from-behind penalties. Parfeniuk was whistled at the end of the first period while O’Neil was hit with his penalty late in the second frame. . . .Nelson played the game without the services of star forward Gavin Currie. . . . Nelson’s top two scorers from the regular season, Colton Schell and Joel Stewart, were both held scoreless for the second consecutive game. . . .Game four is Saturday in Nelson. If necessary, the series shifts back to Fruitvale for Game five Monday. . . .Castlegar Rebels, leading 2-0, travel to Spokane Thursday for game three of the Murdoch Division semi final. . . .Princeton Posse, Revelstoke Grizzlies, Osoyoos Coyotes and Fernie Ghostriders all own 2-0 leads in their respective [email protected]last_img read more

The Ultimate Twitter Revenue Model

first_imgFacebook is Becoming Less Personal and More Pro… Tags:#twitter#web A Comprehensive Guide to a Content Audit Related Posts The perennial debate surrounding Twitter‘s revenue model continues to live on. The micro-blogging service has succeeded in building a strong, loyal following, but failed to capitalize on it. Such a scenario, which lacks a revenue model, isn’t sustainable over the long-term, especially when investors begin to question the company’s intentions. If an acquisition isn’t shaping up, monetization will be necessary to keep Twitter afloat. Having said that, leveraging context may prove to be a great way to drive revenues while maintaining the integrity of the platform.This is a guest post by Aidan Henry, a social media expert and blogger. He can be found on the web at MappingTheWeb.Leveraging ContextEssentially, this would entail Twitter parsing over the Tweets of a given user, as well as the Tweets of the users he/she is following. Common keywords, themes, and phrases are then pulled from this data and associated with that user. As a result, highly-targeted ads can be displayed based on the user’s network of content (“web design”, for example). These simple text ads would look very similar to regular Tweets, but would be clearly marked as “Sponsored Content”. Facebook employs a comparable strategy through their News Feed, although ads are based on demographic information as opposed to context. These Twitter ads would appear every 20 or so Tweets depending on the frequency chosen by the company.Integrating ads into the content stream is a delicate process. Caution must be exercised and full notification must be provided. One wrong step may prove costly. Nonetheless, if ad integration can be accomplished in a seamless, unobtrusive manner, it can be extremely effective.Ad SystemThe ads would be generated via a proprietary auction system developed by Twitter. Advertisers would bid on desired keywords and phrases, somewhat akin to Google AdWords. These specified terms, or bundles of terms, would ultimately be assigned to the highest bidder each month (as an example). The ads would run until the advertiser budget runs dry or the month ends. If the former is the case, excess inventory would be allocated to the second highest bidder. If no bidders are left, superfluous ad space can either be filled with Google ads, ads from partner networks, or house ads.Obviously, most of the ads would be tech-centric — after all, Twitter has yet to break into the mainstream. Its user base is filled with bleeding-edge tech enthusiasts. Armed with this knowledge, advertisers can directly target tech innovators, influencers, and early adopters while Twitter is able to command premium ad dollars.Tiered ModelThis strategy paves the way for a two-tiered “freemium” model. Any users that choose not to view the ads could be charged a small, yearly fee that would create an additional revenue stream. Ad-free account could be combined with premium features and added functionality beyond the basic offering to give users more value.The combination of highly-targeted, contextual ads and a premium subscription should suit the needs of most users. Those who don’t want to pay for the service don’t have to. Those who don’t want to view the ads don’t have to either. At the end of the day, creating a flexible revenue model that doesn’t cause a user backlash is the ultimate goal. If personalized, contextual ads appeal to the user, I have no doubt that users will not only accept this new model, but embrace it.center_img Guide to Performing Bulk Email Verification aidan henry The Dos and Don’ts of Brand Awareness Videoslast_img read more

The URL Is Dead, Long Live Search

first_imgTop Reasons to Go With Managed WordPress Hosting Still, with the continued rise of the mobile web it would seem that long, unwieldy URLs will become even more cumbersome on devices with limited screen size. That makes search even more important, and driving consumers to your product via search seems like a safe bet. According to Compete last fall, navigational searches make up about 17% of all searches on average, more on Yahoo! and Live than on Google. For well-known web sites, Compete found that about 9 out of the top 10 search terms for that site tend to be some sort of variation on the domain. Surprisingly, people actually often search for entire domain names rather than type them into their browser’s address bar.After a little digging, I found that Kellogg’s Yahoo! campaign actually began last December with their holiday TV commercial run. Hitwise reported that that holiday campaign boosted traffic to SpecialK.com and that almost two thirds of that traffic came from searches for “Special K.” Consumers were following the advice of the ad, as well, with search traffic to the domain skewing 53% toward Yahoo!Update: Via Allen Stern, turns out the offline/online search promotion from Special K is even older — dating back to at least last October. He has some interesting suggestions for taking the concept even further over at his excellent blog.While I couldn’t find out which way the money was flowing, Stephan Pechdimaldji of Yahoo!’s advertising PR team told me that the Special K search campaign had a 10 times better response rate than previous campaigns the company had run on Yahoo! It’s hard to say if that indicates that a call to action to search trumps a call to visit a site directly, or if only that TV ads are big traffic drivers.Either way, search over URL seems to be a trend we’re likely to see more of. Advertising search boxes rather than .com names is already all the rage in Japan. Mac developer Cabel Sasser pointed out in March that search boxes with suggested terms are pretty much all you see on ads in Japan, but he wondered if search marketers and spammers might ruin that strategy in the US. That’s probably why Kellogg bought the top sponsored result for “Special K” on Yahoo! (and, for good measure, on Google as well). Last week I was watching TV and saw something that really caught my eye. It was a commercial for Special K, the breakfast cereal from Kellogg, and rather than end with a plug for the product’s web site — SpecialK.com — it advised people to search Yahoo! for “Special K” instead. I started to wonder two things: 1. is Yahoo! paying Special K for tack-on advertising? and 2. has searching really become so natural that it is more effective to tell people to search for your site than it is to tell them to visit directly?To the latter question, the answer appears to be a somewhat surprising “yes.” Of the 10 fastest rising search terms on Google last year, 7 were for searches where adding a “.com” would have brought the user to the correct site. These are called “navigational” searches — searches done when the user already knows exactly where he or she wants to end up — and they make up a surprising large number of total seaches. josh catone 1 Related Posts center_img 8 Best WordPress Hosting Solutions on the Market Tags:#Features#Trends#web Why Tech Companies Need Simpler Terms of Servic… A Web Developer’s New Best Friend is the AI Wai…last_img read more

California ~ Sales and Use Tax: Online Travel Companies Are Not Hotel Operators and Are Not Liable for Tax

first_imgCCH Tax Day ReportOnline travel companies (OTCs) are not operators of hotels within the meaning of the San Diego ordinance that imposes a California local transient occupancy tax and, as such, the OTCs are not liable for the tax. Under the San Diego ordinance, in a merchant model type of transaction, a hotel operator is liable for tax on the wholesale cost plus any additional amount for room rental the operator requires the OTC to charge the visitor under rate parity provisions of contracts between hotels and OTCs.Merchant ModelUnder the merchant model, OTCs contract with hotels to advertise and rent rooms to the general public, and they handle all financial transactions related to the hotel reservations, but they do not own, operate, or manage hotels. The price the hotel charges the OTC for the room is the wholesale price and rate parity provisions in most contracts between OTCs and hotels bar the OTC from selling a room for a rent lower than what the hotel quotes its customers directly. The OTC offers rooms to the public at retail prices and charges customers a “tax recovery charge,” which represents the OTC’s estimate of what the hotel will owe in transient occupancy tax based on the wholesale price of the room as charged by the hotel to the OTC. The hotel bills the OTC for the wholesale price of the room plus the transient occupancy tax the hotel will have to pay based on the room’s wholesale price, and the OTC remits the charged amount to the hotel, which in turn remits the tax to San Diego, and the OTC retains its markup and service fees.San Diego Transient Occupancy Tax OrdinanceThe San Diego ordinance provides that, for the privilege of occupancy in any hotel located in San Diego, each transient must pay a tax in the amount of 6% of the rent charged by the operator. “Operator” is defined as the person who is the proprietor of the hotel, whether in the capacity of owner, lessee, sublessee, mortgagee in possession, licensee, or any other capacity. The term includes a managing agent, resident manager, or resident agent, of any type or character, other than an employee without management responsibility.Tax is Imposed on Amount Charged by OperatorThe California Supreme Court held that the ordinance imposes the tax on the amount charged by the operator; it does not refer to amounts received or collected by the operator. To the extent a hotel determines the markup, such as by contractual rate parity provisions requiring the OTC to quote and charge the customer a rate not less than what the hotel is quoting on its own website, it effectively charges that amount, regardless of whether it ultimately receives or collects any portion of the markup, and that amount is therefore subject to the tax.That the OTCs act as hotel agents or intermediaries for the limited purpose of charging and collecting rent does not subject the OTCs to assessment as an operator or make any undifferentiated portion of the charge representing the amount unilaterally set by the OTCs rent charged by the operator. Under the contracts between the hotels and the OTCs, the OTCs agreed to be responsible for any taxes assessed by any governmental authority on the markup, to collect and remit room tax, and to assume liability to San Diego for nonpayment or underpayment of the tax. However, these provisions allocate responsibility as between the hotels and the OTCs for properly assessed room taxes but they do not create liability for the tax; only the ordinance can do that, and the ordinance imposes assessment of the transient occupancy tax on hotel operators.In re Transient Occupancy Tax Cases, California Supreme Court, No. S218400, December 12, 2016, ¶406-598last_img read more